AVOID - to avoid serious negative impacts
  1. Avoidance measures need to be undertaken early on in the design or exploration stage of an intervention.
  2. Costing Nature can be used to assess whether the site falls in an area of high conservation priority , biodiversity, realized or potential ecosystem service provision (see here) to understand whether the proposal is planned for a critical area.
  3. WaterWorld can be used to assess the hydrological ecosystem services provided by a site and the number and distribution of population and infrastructure downstream that are dependent upon these (see here).
  4. Scenario analysis in Costing Nature or WaterWorld can be used to examine the impacts of the proposed activity: mining (see here)  oil and gas (see here), agricultural (see here) or infrastructural development, on biodiversity and ecosystem services.
  5. Viable alternative interventions can be assessed to determine which best avoids negative environmental and social outcomes.
  6. Both PSS can be used to indicate the kinds of data improvement required through field study and critical spaces for data collection.
  7. Both PSS can help identify where biodiversity and ecosystem services could be offset and help identify nearby conservation measures that can help in offsetting.
MINIMISE - to minimise negative impacts
  1. Both Costing Nature and WaterWorld can be used to assess the top x% of habitat with respect to the conservation metrics of interest and can be used to understand the implications of loss for different patches of this in terms of overall loss and loss to specific conservation metrics eg ecosystem services and even specific provisioning, regulating or cultural services.
  2. Costing Nature's conservation priority and development priority indices can be used to minimise impacts on current realized ecosystem services and on those likely to be realized/important in the future for example by changing location or reducing the size of the intervention's space footprint.
  3. Likely offsite impacts and their transmission downstream can be understood using WW/CNs human footprint index and impacts of their mitigation better understood.
  4. The cumulative impacts of many interventions by many companies can be better understood than through individual EIAs (see here).

RESTORE - to restore following negative impacts
  1. WaterWorld and Costing Nature's scenario analysis tools can be used to understand the kinds of conservation/restoration possible through land use and management and the extent to which different scenarios for land and water use and management can restore specific ecosystem services (see here).
  2. The tools can also be used to help understand the specific scales and locations that will be needed in monitoring efforts to understand progress in restoration and the business case for conservation and restoration activities.
  3. The tools can be used to understand the balance and trade-offs between positive and negative impacts of restoration (for example improvements in water quality on reforestation of agricultural land vs the resulting reductions in water quantity).
  4. The tools can help understand impacts on the balance between services benefiting local (eg water, hazard mitigation) vs.  global beneficiaries (eg biodiversity, carbon storage and sequestration).

OFFSET - to offset negative impacts

  1. Both WaterWorld and Costing Nature can be used to compare different parcels of land according to multiple attributes, separately or in combination and better understand multi-factor habitat similarity and complementarity.
  2. The tools can also be used to highlight candidate offset areas for further field data collection and research.